The factors that can lead to immobility and then to the formation of bedsores are paralysis, poor health or weakness, injury or illness that needs bed rest, sedation, coma and recovery after surgery. Some other factors that increase the risk of bed sores are age, lack of sensory perception, poor nutrition and hydration, weight loss, urinary or fecal incontinence, excess moisture or dryness, smoking, medical conditions affecting circulation, muscle spasm and decreased mental awareness.
The bedsores are classified into four possible stages, based on their severity. The different stages of bedsores are as follows:
Stage 1 – it starts in a persistent area which turns red and becomes itchy. You can feel the area a bit warm, firm or spongy in touch.
Stage 2 – in the second stage, the outer surface of the skin or the deeper layer of the skin gets damaged. Now the bedsores look like a open wound.
Stage 3 – in this stage the skin loss occurs and the tissue that is beneath the skin is also damaged and it appears like a deep cavity like wound.
Stage 4 – this is the most severe type of bedsore, in this stage the skin gets damaged and the underlying soft tissue begins to die. At this stage the muscles or bones can also be damaged.
The treatment for bedsores of stage 1 and stage 2 is quite easy, as the wound can be easily healed within some weeks or months with utmost care of the wound. But the treatment of bedsores of stage 3 and stage 4 are very difficult. Usually, the treatment of bedsores includes several steps that includes reducing the pressure, removing damaged tissues and cleaning and dressing the wound.
The medications used for bedsores are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen (these are used for pain managment), antibiotics, muscle relaxants such as diazepam , dantrolene, baclofen and tizanidine (these are used for muscle spasm relief).