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Constitution of India: Issues & challenges
Indian constitution is based on secular democratic system and its powers are equally divided to center as well as states. Citizens of India have equal rights of freedom and equality.
INDIAN CONSTITUTION came into force on  January, 26, 1950. It embodied many aspects of United Kingdom's constitutional forms and practices but was adapted in a fundamental ways to mark India's achievement of independence.
 
Under the Constitution, India is a federation consisting of a central government in New Delhi which controls the nation on the whole and the states which look after their affairs individually. Delhi, and six other small units are called union territories, because they are administered directly by the central government.

The Indian Constitution, like many others, contains a list of fundamental rights, such as the right to freedom of speech and freedom of religion. The constitution guarantees equal rights to all citizens, and it prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, sex, caste (social class), religion, or place of birth.

 
It also includes two unusual features. There is a list of directive principles of state policy, which express ideals of social justice, equality, and welfare. For example, they urge the government to establish a minimum wage, provide education and jobs for people from disadvantaged backgrounds, and improve public health.
 
The directive principles have no legal status and cannot be enforced by the courts, but they were intended to guide the government in policy-making. In 1976, the Parliament added to these a list of fundamental duties of the citizen, which include the duty to protect the natural environment and the cultural heritage of the country.

Most modern governments like India has constitutions based on a single document. In most democracies, the written constitution can be changed only by a special process, such as a special election. Such amending procedures reflect the belief that a constitution should deal with basic principles, and that special deliberation should be required to modify or replace these principles.


Indian constitution is the largest written constitution. It is based on secular democratic system and its powers are equally divided to center as well as states. Citizens of India have equal rights of freedom and equality. The special stress has been given on rights of equality, security ,freedom and social justice for deprived classes.


Before law all citizens of India have equal rights and there is no discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, sex, heredity, birth place etc. Right to freedom-consists right to freedom of speech, to make any useful organisation and association, to move freely in throughout country, to settle down in any part of country and right to choose any occupation. But the security, morality, prestige, and administrative system of the country should not be hammered by these rights.


Every citizen has right to protect his culture, language and script of origin. Minorities have right to opt the education of their liking in their own script and language. Minorities have also right to open educational institution of their likings. There is no freedom to state to run any education institution of any specific religion.


Now it is good sign of development that Jharkhand also has decided to strictly implement the existing fundamental right of education for all children across the state including poor and deprived children.

 
Although most schools are English medium and private schools have obtained their school premises on the condition of providing 5% seats to poor children, hardly has there been a case when the private schools abided by their promises. Since the case came into light, educational authorities have been asked to take this matter seriously. Recently, the Human Resource Development Minister Kapil Sibal announced an increase of almost 2,00,000 seats in engineering courses in India.

Since all these initiatives show the acceptance of the fundamental rights and duties due to the increasing white collar crime such hindrances, not many a times are these policies able to materialise.

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