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Highest rural self-employed in HP, Rajasthan: NSSO Survey
The results of NSSO Survey on Employment and Unemployment in India, has come out with interesting findings. It provides broad features of the employment in the country at national and state levels.
THE HILL state of Himachal Pradesh followed by desert kingdom of Rajasthan has the highest number of self-employed persons in the rural areas in the country. In comparison, Goa with 110 persons per thousand and the Group of Union Territories with 142 persons have the least number of self-employed persons in rural areas.    
These are the results of a National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) survey on ‘Employment and Unemployment in India,’ which has come out with some interesting findings. It provides some broad features of the employment situation in the country at both national and the state level.
According to the survey, Himachal has 410 persons per thousand in self-employed category, followed by Rajasthan with 342 persons.
For the salaried persons category in rural areas, the Group of Union territories with (141) per thousand persons have the highest number followed by Delhi (137) and Goa (122) in rural areas. In comparison, Bihar and Chattisgarh with 11 and 17 persons have least number of salaried employs in the rural areas.
Andhra Pradesh followed by Karnataka has the highest number of casual labourers per thousand of population, at 252 and 246 persons respectively.
In contrast, the statistics for urban areas show that there is uniformity in the employment statistics across the country.
Assam (190) followed by Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir having 177 and 171 persons per thousand respectively have the highest number of self-employed persons in urban areas.
The Group of Union Territories with 104 persons per thousand followed by Delhi (116) and Jharkhand (123) have the minimum number of self-employed persons.
Goa (211) followed by Tamilnadu (194) has the maximum number of salary earners in urban areas, compared to Bihar (59) and Uttar Pradesh (104), which have the least number of wage earners per thousand persons.
Interestingly, the southernmost state of Kerala followed by Karnataka have the highest number of casual labourers according to the survey.
A cumulative look at the data tells that about 74 per cent of the households belong to rural India and account for nearly 76 per cent of the total population.
Sixty-six per cent males and 47 per cent females were found literate in the rural areas. The corresponding literacy rate for urban areas was 70 per cent for females and 82 per cent for females.
Forty nine per cent in the age group of 5-29 years are attending schools and colleges in rural areas, whereas 53 per cent do so in urban areas.
The wage rate for salaried employees is Rs 138.74 for males in rural areas, whereas for women the average salary is Rs 87.71. Similarly, the wage rate for men in urban areas is 205.81 as compared to 158.23 for females.
The unemployment rate for educated persons in the age group 15-29 years is 12 per cent and 16 per cent for rural and urban areas.
The rate of under-employment was found higher in rural than urban and higher for female than for male under the three approximations.
The fieldwork of the survey was carried out during July 2005-June 2006. The survey was spread over 4,798 villages and 5,125 urban blocks covering 78,879 households (37,975 in rural areas and 40,904 in urban areas) and enumerating 3,77,377 persons (1,86,571 in rural areas and 1,90,806 in urban areas).
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