Louise Brown from England was the first baby born through in vitro fertilization in 1978, and the second baby through IVF was born in India. The in vitro fertilization procedures involves five basic steps which include the following:
Monitoring the development of egg by examining the development of ovaries through ultrasound, the urine samples and blood samples are also taken to keep a track on hormonal levels.
A procedure known as follicular aspiration is used to retrieve the eggs from the ovaries by using a hollow needle.
Then the sperm is collected through ejaculation and is then prepared to combine with the egg.
Insemination technique is used to combine the egg with the sperm for fertilization in an incubator. If the probability of fertilization is low, then intracytoplasmic sperm injection can be used for fertilization.
Then the embryos are transferred to the female internal reproductive organ within one to six days. The transfer is done through a speculam which is inserted into the vagina, the embryos are then suspended in fluid and are placed into the womb through a catheter. The entire process is guided by ultrasound.
The advantages of in vitro fertilization can be, assisting the odds of getting pregnant (like blockage of Fallopian tube). In vitro fertilization is a better option for low sperm count in men. In vitro fertilization is also advantageous for those couples, where the women has a problem of premature ovarian failures or some issues related to egg.
All the in vitro fertilization cases are not successful, the success rate was about 35% earlier, but it has improved now. Success rate of in vitro fertilization depends on factors like patient characteristics and treatment approaches. Marcos Meseguer, a clinical embryologist says that the use of embryoscopy for in vitro fertilization has increased the success rate of conception through in vitro fertilization by 10-20%, reported in Daily News and Analysis.