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Tribal problems and measures to solve these problems
In 1992, a bill 'Central Panchayat Rule Act' has been passed and according to it, the three-tier system of local administration of village panchayat, development panchayat and district panchayat shall work out.
POLITICAL RESERVATION among parliaments and legislative assemblies for tribals could be evaluated as per declaration. After independence, according to Articles 330 and 332 of the Indian Constitution, the reservation of tribes shall be done in above institutions as per proportion of their populations. In the beginning, it was kept this arrangement for ten years. Subsequently, with the help of various amendments it has been kept up to year 2010. There are 41 seats reserved for tribes in Lok Sabha and 527 seats in various legislative assemblies. In 1992, a bill 'Central Panchayat Rule Act' has been passed and according to it, the three-tier system of local administration of village panchayat, development panchayat and district panchayat shall work out. The reservation of tribes shall be as per proportion of their populations. By this system their political participation shall be increase and they will take active part in solving their problems.

Reservation in services is another measure to make them more comfortable in present complicated system. In open competitions for services 7.5 per cent seats have been reserved for them. Same seats have been reserve for promotions in services also. In state level, tribal commissions have been opened to take care of all these reservation positions. Time to time, it evaluates the task. There are many other categories where reservations policy has been adopted.

category

Total workers

Schedule tribe reserve

Per cent

1-First class

85,938

3,593

4.18

2-Second class

1,81,905

7,863

4.32

3-Third class

21,21,697

1,38,685

6.54

4-Fourth class
Except sweepers

8,79,805

61,204

6.96


Educational privileges are well known factor for their development. In India, the rate of literacy is 65.38 per cent while tribal educate ratio is only 47.10 per cent. Among the tribes in Bihar and Jharkhand, this ratio is only 18.5 per cent. To improve their literacy ratio in 1991,Government of India, has started giving stipend of Rs 50 per month to tribal children, who are enrolled up to primary schools. The tribal students of class three to eighth who are living in hostels will get stipend of Rs 200 per month. The Class IX and X students will get Rs 250 per month. The parents who are coming in category of below poverty and earn only Rupees 1500 per month, their children were entitled to receive this amount.

The coaching centers like TRIs are also being opened to provide them all type of help. For higher education their arrangement and scholarships are being fixed by officials. There are separate hostels for tribal boys and girls of college students. In tribal sub plan of 1991, new ashram schools were opened that along with education provide training of their cultural components. There is arrangements of vocational courses also. Many NGO’s are helping them and they are getting aid from governments.

The law Checks of Atrocities on Schedule Caste and Tribe, 1989 has been passed out which has been implemented from January 30, 1990. There is provision of severe punishment who so ever will remain involved in act of torturing them. The sufferer will get social and economic relief of rehabilitation. There is provision of special courts who will imposed penalty and fixed the size of punishment. Bihar ,Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Tamilnadu have established such special courts in their states. In 1990, under 65th constitution amendment, 'National Schedule Tribe Commission' was formed which lets President of India know about reservation and welfare of tribes.

There are other Tribal Development programmes. There are so many economic development programmes for improvement of tribal status. This was for the first time to allot money for their economic development under five years Plan (1974-1979). Bihar and Madhya Pradesh have start doing work on it where 50 per cent population is tribal. In 1980, under sixth five years plan ITDP (Integrated Tribal Development Plan) has been introduced which will help to provide debts, employment, training and contingency to the poorest tribal men. One more plan AADA (Amended Area of Development Act) was also amended which says that where at the 10,000 population, 5,000 will be tribal should be sort out. At present 250 such areas have been located and development programmes are in progress. Overall, total 194 ITDP plans are working under various tribal belts. It is estimated by government that more than 48 laces tribal families have been benefited by these plans. Under eight plan, 60.5 lakh extra families will be aiming to benefited by it. One more plan named TSP (Tribe Sub Plan) is also giving help to tribes of various states.

Development of cooperative marketing is another tool to develop them. In 1987, government has formed this board named Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Union to protect their interests and save them from selfish traders. The artistic things are being marketed by this board so that they can get appropriate value of their artisan items. This board has started doing work from April 1988.The agricultural items produce by tribals are kept under its protection and being sold out by board and farmers get its reasonable cost. In initial stage, this board did the business of Rupees 140 millions only. It increases its business up to Rupees 5000 millions in 2004-2005. The capital of this board is more than Rs 1000 millions. At present, to some extent, the status of tribes has been improved.

There are 14 TRI institutes, which have been established in 14 states. These states are Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Karela, Madhya Pradesh, Maharshtra, Orissa, Rajasthan ,Tamilnadu, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Manipur and Tripura. The tribal artistic things are kept in museums of these states. The literature of tribal culture are being published and various research projects on tribal culture are undertaking by scholars. Various workshops and seminars are also being organised to throw light on development programmes of tribal culture, In 2004, Central government have invested Rs 10.90 millions on these research institutes.

Without rehabilitation facilities, all these things are fruitless. Due to mining and industries, many tribal families have become homeless. Millions of homes were damaged or destroyed throughout the coalfield area during coal mining. Since then, much of the housing built in this area consists of government-owned blocks of flats that are rented at low cost. Schools and drinking water are also other facilities which are being provided to them.

In a nutshell, without sincere efforts all are like a needle in sand.



 
 

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