If the subject elements of an intended photographic composition are located far from the camera position, the normal tendency for a photographer is to 'zoom-in' or use the telephoto end of a zoom lens if it is available, rather than moving closer to the subject.
OF COURSE, there is nothing wrong with this method; in fact telephoto lenses are made precisely for this reason. But it has significant effects on the proportion of the background to the subject. Using telephoto lenses causes a telephoto perspective distortion. It is not the lens that causes this distortion but this distortion only happens as a result of using lenses with long focal distances.
If the distance of the subject from the camera is big enough, the use of a telephoto lens to make them appear closer will cause the objects that are near the subject to look bigger than normal as though they are on the same distance as the subject. This makes them appear to be side by side with each other or closely piled up.
Perspective distortion in photography depends on the angle of the camera and the viewing angle at which the subject is seen with unaided eye. Since perspective distortion happens only one direction, it also seems to alter slightly the shape of close by subjects more in one direction. But, in nature photography, the zoom-in distortion is able to give an artistic look to the composition.
The inset picture shows the encircled in red portion of the house in which lamp post is small while in the adjoining zoom-in photograph same portion looks big due to distortion but makes the picture interesting at the same time.