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Remote sensing and development sector
Digvijay Singh Rajput | 26 Mar 2007

The new e-world is opening a door of world of information and creating an umbrella for integration of each and every sector. Development sector of civil society is also being deeply influenced by it. Now a day, the development sector is taking a technical

Concept of remote sensing
 
Remote sensing is the science and art of acquiring information (spectral, special, temporal) about material objects, area or phenomenon without coming into direct physical contact with the objective, area or phenomenon under investigation without direct contact. Some means of transferring information through space must be utilized.
 
The technical term "remote sensing" was first used in the United States in the 1960’s, and encompassed photogrammetry, photo-interpretation, photo-geology etc. Since the launch of Landsat-1, the first earth observation satellite in 1972 remote sensing has become widely used.
 
There are four basic components used in remote sensing system including the energy source, the transmission path, the target and the satellite sensor. Electro-magnetic radiation, which is reflected or emitted from an object, is the usual source of remote sensing data. However any media such as gravity or magnetic fields can be utilized in remote sensing. A device to detect the electro-magnetic radiation reflected or emitted from an object is called a "remote sensor" or "sensor". Cameras or scanners are examples of remote sensors. A vehicle to carry the sensor is called a "platform". Aircraft or satellites are used as platforms.
 
There are different types of remote sensing in respect to the type of energy sources which is of two types:
 
Passive remote sensing:
It makes use of sensors that detect responses or emitted electromagnetic radiations from natural sources.
 
Active remote sensing:
It makes use of sensors that detect reflected responses from objects that are irradiated from artificially- generated energy sources, such as radar.
 
In respect to wavelength Region:
Remote sensing is classified into three types in respect to the wavelength regions.
Visible and reflective infrared Remote Sensing
Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing.
Microwave Remote Sensing
 
Principle of remote sensing:
The remote sensing process is based on reflection of radiation from an object and sensing that radiation by sensors. It can be understood under following headings: -
 
Radiation emission by source:
In case of passive remote sensing, the radiation emitted by natural source, which is “sun&#8221. It contains radiations of a wide range of frequency, from ultra violet region to infrared region. In case of Active remote sensing the radiation is incident from an artificial energy sources, mostly by Radar, it irradiates laser light, which is used for highly, sensed spectrum generation.
 
Reflection as absorption of radiation by object:
The emitted radiation collides with the target object-matter. All matter neglect, absorb, penetrate and emit electro magnetic radiations in a unique way. This unique characteristics of matter are called spectral characteristics depend on the spectral effect of object. This unique reflected radiations moves toward the sensor.
 
Scanning by sensor:
The radiation reaching to the sensors are measured either by radiometry or photometry, with different technical and physical units. Radiometry is used for physical measurement of a wide range of radiation from x-ray to radio wave, which photometry corresponds to human perception of light based on the human eye’s sensitivity. Passive sensors detect the reflected or emitted electro-magnetic radiation from natural sources, while active sensors detect reflected responses from objects, which are irradiated from artificially, generated energy sources, such as radar. Each is divided further in to non-scanning and scanning systems.
 
Transformation of Data or image to receiver:
The image or data transmitted by satellite and received by highly sensitive receiver for further process.
 
Manipulation and management of data and image:
It is done in two steps as below:
 
Image interpretation:
Image interpretation is defined as the extraction of qualitative and quantitative information in the form of a map, about the shape, location, structure, function, quality, condition, relationship of and between objects, etc. by using human knowledge or experience.
 
Image processing:
t works in five stages as below
(1) Input data (2) Reconstruction / Correction (3) Transformation (4) Classification (5) Output
 
Transformation of information to e-world:
Availability of information through Internet for the use different purposes:
 
GIS by remote sensing
GIS facility: A geographic information system (GIS) is a system, which manages spatial data and associated attributes. In the strictest sense, it is a computer system capable of integrating, storing, editing, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced information. In a more generic sense, GIS is “smart map” tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user created searches), analyze the spatial information, and edit data.
 
Remote sensing satellites in India
With the satellites designed and built by India in the INSAT and IRS series, the country has started to reap the benefits of space technology for developmental applications, specifically in the areas of communication, broadcasting, meteorology, disaster management and the survey and management of resources. The planned launches of more powerful satellites will further enhance and extend the benefits of space technology. The successful launch of PSLV and the progress made in the development of GSLV give confidence in the capability of India to launch the IRS and INSAT class of satellites from its own soil. Thus, India today has a well-integrated and self-supporting space programme, which is providing important services to society.
 
Civil society
In respect to the working of civil society it is mainly of three types
Welfare organizations: it perform the work related to welfare of people as health, education, rehabilitation and resettlement, old age home etc.
Advocacy and social movement organizations: The organizations work for the advocacy of people and initialize the social movements as human rights, child labor, and women empowerment.
Development organizations: the organizations works for the social, economical, cultural, political development of the people are called the development organizations as small and cottage industries, livelihood generation activity, agriculture, watershed management, natural resource management etc.
 
Remote sensing in development sector: Need of the hour
The development and other activities are related to 1) specific geographical conditions, 2) site locations, 3) availability of resources, 4)physical infrastructure etc. which can be sensed by using Remote sensing. It will help in all aspects of a development program for example - planning, management and evaluation. We can analyze the uses of remote sensing in different development activities.
 
Agriculture and allied activities: Remote sensing can help in the following way
Weather and climate forecasting: Remote sensing help in the weather and climate forecasting, which is useful for farmers in agriculture, can provide them maximum output. It also saves them by natural calamity.
Soil type, ground water availability: Different type crops need, different type of soil and amount of water. By using remote sensing, we can gather data related to soil type and availability of ground water.
Planning for wasteland development: By using remote sensing we can make constructive plan for the development of wasteland using the resource available locally.
Planning of agricultural marketing: By allocation of infrastructure and market situations, we can make a cost effective plan using management science methods.
 
Natural resource management: Remote sensing can help in this activity in the following manner
To save resources by degradation: Using Remote sensing, we can analyze the cause of degradation of natural resources in a particular area and can be suggest to manage by that way so the degradation will be minimum.
To provide optimum and sustainable use of natural resources: India have sufficient amount of natural resources, which are underutilized and exploit in an unfeasible manner. By use of Remote sensing we can find alternative resources and can provide optimum utilization by their proper allocation.
Forecasting of future problems: The future problems can be forecast by analyzing data gathered by Remote sensing and proper arrangement of problem solution can be done priory.
Evaluation of project: the project based on the Natural resource management can be evaluated by use of Remote sensing with a cost effective way.
 
Small and cottage scale industries: Remote sensing can help in the following way
Plant site location: Site allocation can be done with use of Remote sensing data. Which can provide economical, ecological, social and technical physiability.
Raw material allocation: It will help in allocation of raw material and other supports which can make the industry profitable.
Planning for marketing: Data collected by remote sensing can help in making the marketing ventures cost effective with the use of management science and with proper allocation of markets and transportation paths.
 
Watershed management: Remote sensing can help in the following way
Site location selection for check dam: By the allocation of slopes of land and locations, the site can be selected for building of check dams.
Evaluation of project: The watershed program can be physically evaluated with the help of Remote sensing. Its coverage area can be measured.
 Forecasting of impact of watershed management: The impact of program can be forecasted by use of detailed information about land, water and other relative resources.
Through proper planning could be suggest as a substitute of big dams: the dam displacement is a very big issue. Creating small check dams instead of big dams can reduce this displesement. For it watershed can be a good substitute if the national label integrated plan will be created. And Remote sensing can play a great role in providing related information.
 
Disaster management: Remote sensing can help in the following way
Forecasting of disaster: The disaster can be forecasted prior by using Remote sensing viz: during Tsunami America and other some countries, saved the victims by using Remote Sensing. It helps in making prior arrangement to fight with disaster.
Allocation of resources and site locations for prearrangement: it also helps in making allocation of resources to make prior arrangement to fight with disaster.
After disaster evaluation of effected area: After disaster for resettlement of people and evaluation of effected area can be done by suing remote sensing. It will help in selecting priority area for immediate help to people.
Allocation of unaffected resources for remedy to effected people: It helps in allocating unaffected resources, which can be use for the remedy of effected people, and a proper holistic program can be formulated for rehabilitation of people.
 
Eco-tourism: Remote sensing can help in the following way
Allocation of sites and sceneries: Beautiful sites and sceneries can be found and can be developed for tourism use with the research of other ecological effects.
Allocation of geographical possibilities: By the allocation of other geographical, the l characteristics of that particular area and other possibilities can be found.
Forecasting of calamity: The damage can be reduced by prior information of calamity and proper arrangement can be made.
Planning of overall plan: A holistic planning could be made by the geographical analysis of the whole country with the use of Remote sensing data.
 
MIS system for development organizations: Remote sensing can help in the following manner:
For creation of plan and sub plan: it can help NGOs and other development organizations in creating a holistic plan for a big area and its sub plan with the allocation of areas and roots to treble. Which will make the planning more cost effective and accurate.
Resource and problem allocation: it will help them in finding possibilities by allocation of available resources and also in finding out the problem that can be occur during handling of project.
Survey and research tools: it can be used in survey and research as secondary source of data.
Infrastructure and site allocation: it will help in finding the most feasible site and the availability of infrastructure for easiness of work.
 
Conclusion:
Remote sensing was initiated by United Nations for the fulfillment of military needs but now, it is taking a wide shape and facilitating different area of interest. In future, it will help in a great way for the welfare and development of human society. The technology of remote sensing is being more and more sensitive and supplying more intensive informations. In future, it is about to show a boom as far a as human and social development is concerned.