Premature heart disease is when heart disease occurs before 55 years in men and 65 years in women. In premature heart disease the prevalence of dyslipidemia is 75-85%, said Dr. K.K.Aggarwal, Padma Shri and Dr B C Roy National Awardee and President, Heart Care Foundation of India.
Prematureheart disease is when heart disease occurs before 55 years in men and 65 years in women. In premature heart disease the prevalence of dyslipidemia is 75-85%, said Dr. K.K.Aggarwal, Padma Shri and Dr B C Roy National Awardee and President, Heart Care Foundation of India.
Fifty-four percent of all patients with premature heart disease and 70% of those with a lipid abnormality have a familial disorder. Screening for lipids is therefore recommended for first-degree relatives of patients with MI (particularly if premature). Screening should begin with a standard lipid profile and if normal, further testing should be done for Lp(a) and apolipoproteins B and A-I.
Approximately 25% patients with premature heart disease and a normal standard lipid profile will have an abnormality in Lp(a) or apo B. Elevated apo A-1 and HDL are likewise associated with decreased CHD risk.
First-degree relatives refer to brothers, sisters, father, mother; second-degree relatives are aunts, uncles, grandparents, nieces, or nephews. The third-degree relatives refer to first cousins, siblings, or siblings of grandparents.
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder, characterized by high cholesterol, specifically very high LDL (or the bad cholesterol) levels, and premature heart disease. Patients may develop premature cardiovascular disease at the age of 30 to 40. Heterozygous FH is a common genetic disorder, occurring in 1:500 people in most countries. Homozygous FH is much rarer, occurring in 1 in a million births. Heterozygous FH is normally treated with drugs. Homozygous FH often does not respond to medical therapy and may require apheresis or liver transplant.
To detect familial high cholesterol levels one must do universal screening at age 16. The cholesterol levels in heterozygous patients are between 350 to 500 mg/dL, and in homozygous, the levels are between 700 to 1,200 mg/dL.