Tribal life at otmost south Orissa
Manoj Kumar Das | 26 Mar 2008
Most of the life in tribal livelihood of Malkangiri adopt some of the life styles, culture and festives. Which is described as below.
In Malkangiri district of Orissa, a district situated at otmost end of the state, i.e. towards extream south of the state Orissa. Here we can find a special types of Tribes which the world is unknown about, they are called “BONDA TRIBES”. The Bondas known themselves as Remo(men) are a small tribe of the type now often called Austro-Asiatic country is the wild and mountainnous region north-west of Machakunda river, and here they had kept them selves comparatively unaffected by the morden civilisation of todays era.
Indeed, by plainsmen and officials, the Bondas are regarded as entirely savage, almost as the classic savage type. The outfit and appearance of their unfamilier tounge they speak a different Astro-Asiatic language. The inaccessibility of their abode seperate them from other tribes of the district The origin and affiliations of the Bondas are obscure, but one may accept the possiblility that they are members of a group of Austro-Asiatic tribes which at some remote date took shelter in the wild Jeypore hills. There is every reason to suppose that the Bondas have changed very little during their long history and in them one can have a change of studying a type of character and it's material expression that may be millions of years old. The bondas have been enlisted as a Scheduled Tribes. Bondas are the oldest tribal people of Malkangiri District.They live on the mountains at the height of 3000 feet. In the year 1971, their number was 5,245 and in the year 1981 they were 5,895 in numbers but in the year 1991 they were decreased to a number of 5,129 in which male number was 2,414 and female number was 2,715. These people live in Bonda Hill under Khairput Block mainly called as “BONDA GHAT”. They are mainly two types like Ontal and Kilo. Bondas are found of Podu Cultivation and Bonda ladies help them in this job. In Bonda community the bride is older than the groom Ladies of the Bonda community are half nacked. In the month of April and May "Patkhanda Yatra" at Mudulipada is the main festivals of Bondas. Theese tribs aslo celebrate a festival called “CHAITRA PRABA” a festival to hunt wild life from the forests. Chaitra parba is also called Pangal, a word which comes from South India. It lasts for the whole month of MARCH. All the tribes go gay. Men and Boys go out into the forest for hunting. If they come back without anything, they cannot show their faces to women. Therefore no animal escapes the hunters. If they get nothing else they even kill a jackal. Women dance and sing whole day in the streets and in village commons. All motor vechicles are stopped several times on the road by streams of girls who dance and sing across the road. It is only few paise are paid that the vechicles are allowed to move. With the rise in prices this levy may have risen to rupees. A car going from or to Malkangiri may be stopped a dozen times.To witness a tribal dance for a few rupees is a very cheap entertainment.
The Bondas keep their own rules fairly well. they observe the taboos on incest or adultery and their religious obligations with such fidelity that the few exceptions are long remembered. The Bonda spent a great deal of time on their religion and its feasts and holidays are an important part of Bonda life which can hardly be understood apart from them.Cetrain features are common to every festival. The religious occusions are real festivals and holidays; dancing accompanies each festival and there are some relaxation of rules which forbid men and women of the same village to dance together. At every festival there is a routine worship or placeation of every demigod and demon in the calendar. The chief festival amoung the Kondh is the Kedu festival which was once associated with human sacrifice. At present a buffalo is sacrificied in place of the human victim.
Hunting is one of the people's favourite recreations. In the hot season and especially in the month of March, when all the world makes holiday, organized beats are held in which all the men and boys of the village take part, armed with bows and arrows, axes or spears and occasionally with matchlocks and slay any live things, irrespective of age or sex, which they may meet in the forest. Such expeditions, as a matter of course, culminate in a feast and earouse inthe village
By nature Bondas are short temper and they get angry at the simplest thing and forget the relationship and commit murder. Murder is a simple thing for Bondas, because of this a lot of person has been life impressioned at the Koraput Jail due to this Bonda population has been reduced a lot during the last decade. Here it is important that this community should be taken care from it's extint. This is due to illiteracy in the Bonda community.